Declaration of Independence

The Foundations of the Constitution: The Declaration of Independence




The Declaration of Independence is a foundational document in American history, embodying the spirit of freedom and independence that has come to define the United States. In this treatise, we will explore the historical context, drafting process, philosophical underpinnings, and enduring legacy of this remarkable declaration. The document’s significance extends far beyond its initial purpose, shaping the nation’s identity and inspiring movements for liberty and equality around the world.

As we delve into the depths of this revolutionary manifesto, we will unravel the factors that led to its creation, the principles it espouses, and its impact on the course of history. The Declaration of Independence stands as a testament to the enduring power of ideas and the courage of those who dared to challenge the status quo in pursuit of a more just and equitable society.

Join us on this journey through the annals of American history as we examine the document that laid the foundation for a nation’s quest for freedom and self-determination.



Historical Context

The origins of the Declaration of Independence can be traced back to a tumultuous period in American history, characterized by growing discontent with British colonial rule. Understanding this historical context is crucial to appreciating the significance of the document.

Pre-Revolutionary America

In the mid-18th century, the American colonies were under the dominion of the British Empire. While these colonies had prospered, tensions had been simmering for decades. British policies, such as the Stamp Act and the Tea Act, imposed taxes and regulations on the colonists without their consent, fueling a sense of injustice and oppression.

Moreover, the colonists’ desire for greater self-governance clashed with Britain’s attempts to maintain strict control over its overseas territories. These tensions would ultimately lead to a series of events that culminated in the American Revolutionary War.

Enlightenment Ideas and Influences

The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement that swept through Europe and the American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, played a significant role in shaping the ideas behind the Declaration. Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau championed concepts such as natural rights, the social contract, and the right to rebel against oppressive governments.

These ideas found their way into the minds of American colonists, inspiring them to question the legitimacy of British rule and assert their inherent rights. The Declaration of Independence would echo many of these Enlightenment ideals, making it a powerful statement of political philosophy.

Road to Independence

The path to declaring independence from Britain was fraught with challenges and resistance. However, key events paved the way for the drafting of the Declaration. Events like the Boston Tea Party and the Battles of Lexington and Concord stoked revolutionary fervor among the colonists.

Notable figures such as Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry emerged as passionate advocates for independence, rallying support for the cause. The Continental Congress, convened in Philadelphia, would play a pivotal role in the coming together of the colonies and the decision to draft a declaration of independence.

Drafting the Declaration

The creation of the Declaration of Independence was a pivotal moment in American history. This section explores the process of drafting this historic document.

The Continental Congress

In 1775, delegates from the thirteen American colonies convened in Philadelphia for the Second Continental Congress. This gathering marked a significant step toward unity among the colonies as they grappled with the idea of declaring independence.

The Congress represented a diverse range of views, with some advocating for reconciliation with Britain and others pushing for full independence. It was within this context that the decision to draft a formal declaration of independence was made.

Thomas Jefferson and the Committee of Five

Thomas Jefferson, a Virginia delegate, was tasked with drafting the declaration. His eloquence and firm commitment to the cause made him a natural choice for this important responsibility. Jefferson’s role as the principal author of the document would leave an indelible mark on American history.

Jefferson was joined by a committee of four other prominent figures, including John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston. Together, they would collaborate on crafting a document that would not only declare independence but also articulate the principles and philosophy behind this momentous decision.

The Editing Process

The drafting of the Declaration was not a solitary endeavor. The committee’s draft underwent revisions and debates within the Continental Congress. Various congressmen offered their input and suggestions, leading to several edits and modifications.

The final version of the Declaration of Independence underwent scrutiny, but its core principles remained intact. It was a culmination of the collective wisdom and determination of the Congress, reflecting the ideals and aspirations of the American colonies.

Analyzing the Declaration

The Declaration of Independence is a rich and multifaceted document. In this section, we will dissect its structure, key sections, philosophical foundations, and its significance in detail.

Structure and Key Sections

The Declaration is divided into several distinct sections, each serving a specific purpose:

  1. Preamble: The introduction that sets the stage and outlines the document’s purpose.
  2. Declaration of Rights: A statement of the fundamental principles of human rights and government.
  3. List of Grievances: A catalog of specific grievances against King George III and the British government.
  4. Conclusion: A bold declaration of independence from Britain and a pledge to defend it.

Philosophical Foundations

The Declaration draws heavily from Enlightenment philosophy, with key elements including:

  • Natural Rights: The idea that individuals possess inherent rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Social Contract Theory: The concept that governments derive their authority from the consent of the governed and exist to protect citizens’ rights.

These philosophical underpinnings provide the moral and intellectual foundation for the Declaration’s arguments for independence.

Unpacking the Grievances

The section listing grievances against King George III and the British government serves a crucial role in justifying the American colonies’ quest for independence. This part of the Declaration outlines the specific abuses, usurpations, and violations of rights that led the colonists to take this drastic step.

We will delve into some of the key grievances, exploring their historical context and their role in making a compelling case for independence.

The Declaration’s Impact

Finally, we will examine the immediate and long-term consequences of the Declaration of Independence. It not only signaled a formal break from British rule but also served as an inspiration to other nations and future generations.

We will explore how this document, penned during a pivotal moment in history, continues to resonate and influence the political and social fabric of the United States and the world at large.

Reception and Legacy

Upon its adoption, the Declaration of Independence had a profound impact on both American and world history. This section explores how the document was received and the enduring legacy it left behind.

The Reaction in America

After the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration on July 4, 1776, it was read aloud in public squares and widely distributed throughout the American colonies. Its powerful words resonated with the colonists, providing a unifying rallying cry for the Revolutionary War.

We will delve into the public’s reaction to the Declaration, from enthusiastic support to debates and discussions that emerged in its wake. The document’s influence on the mobilization for the Revolutionary War and the establishment of a new nation will also be examined.

International Reaction

The Declaration of Independence was not limited to American shores; it reverberated around the world. Foreign nations and leaders took notice of this audacious act of defiance against a colonial power.

We will explore the global perspectives on the Declaration and how it influenced diplomatic relations and foreign policy. Its impact on the recognition of the United States as an independent nation and the alliances forged during the Revolutionary War will be discussed.

The Declaration’s Enduring Influence

More than two centuries after its adoption, the Declaration of Independence continues to hold a special place in American identity and culture. Its principles and ideals have shaped the nation’s ethos and inspired generations of Americans.

We will examine how the Declaration’s concepts of liberty, equality, and the pursuit of happiness have permeated American society and played a pivotal role in subsequent political documents, including the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Challenges and Controversies

While the Declaration of Independence stands as a foundational document in American history, it is not without its complexities and contentious issues. This section delves into some of the challenges and controversies associated with the Declaration.

Slavery and the Declaration

One of the most significant controversies surrounding the Declaration is the stark contrast between its lofty ideals of freedom and equality and the institution of slavery. Many of the Founding Fathers who signed the Declaration were slaveholders, leading to a moral paradox.

We will explore how this paradox has been scrutinized and critiqued, both in historical context and by later generations of Americans. The role of abolitionists and their use of the Declaration in the fight against slavery will also be discussed.

Indigenous Peoples and the Declaration

Another often-overlooked aspect of the Declaration’s legacy is its impact on Indigenous nations. The westward expansion of the United States in the wake of independence had devastating consequences for Indigenous peoples and their land.

We will examine the impact of American expansion on Indigenous nations, the concept of “terra nullius,” and Indigenous perspectives on the Declaration and its role in their dispossession.

Contemporary Relevance

The Declaration of Independence continues to be a subject of debate and interpretation in contemporary America. Different groups and individuals interpret its principles in various ways, leading to ongoing discussions about its relevance.

We will explore modern debates over the interpretation of the Declaration, including its role in discussions about civil rights, social justice, and equality. The document’s enduring importance in shaping American society and politics will be discussed in the context of today’s challenges and aspirations.


In the course of this treatise, we have embarked on a comprehensive exploration of the Declaration of Independence, a document that encapsulates the spirit of American freedom and self-determination.

We began by delving into the historical context, uncovering the simmering tensions between the American colonies and British rule, the influence of Enlightenment ideas, and the pivotal events that led to the declaration of independence.

We then dissected the document itself, analyzing its structure, philosophical foundations, and the role of specific grievances against King George III. We examined the enduring impact of the Declaration, both in the United States and around the world.

However, we did not shy away from acknowledging the challenges and controversies associated with this historic document, including the paradox of slavery, the impact on Indigenous nations, and ongoing debates about its interpretation in contemporary America.

As we conclude our journey through the annals of American history, we are left with a profound appreciation for the Declaration of Independence. It stands as a symbol of courage, idealism, and the unwavering belief in the principles of liberty, equality, and the pursuit of happiness.

While the Declaration is not without its imperfections and complexities, it remains a beacon of hope and inspiration for all those who strive for a more just and equitable society. Its enduring legacy reminds us that the quest for freedom and self-determination is a journey that transcends time and continues to shape the destiny of nations.

Frequently Asked Questions about the Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence is a seminal document in American history, adopted on July 4, 1776. It formally announced the American colonies’ decision to break away from British rule, marking the birth of the United States of America. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson and refined by a committee of Founding Fathers, the Declaration articulated the colonies’ reasons for seeking independence and their commitment to the principles of liberty, equality, and self-governance.

The Declaration is renowned for its opening lines, proclaiming that “all men are created equal” and have “unalienable rights” to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” These words, grounded in Enlightenment philosophy, have become an enduring symbol of American ideals.

The lead-up to the Declaration of Independence was marked by escalating tensions between the American colonies and British authorities. British policies, such as the Stamp Act, Tea Act, and the imposition of taxes without colonial representation, fueled colonial resentment. The Boston Tea Party in 1773 and the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775 further strained relations.

Enlightenment philosophy, emphasizing natural rights and the social contract, played a significant role in shaping the colonists’ views on governance and independence. These intellectual underpinnings, combined with mounting grievances, ultimately led to the decision to draft the Declaration.

The drafting of the Declaration of Independence involved several key figures who played pivotal roles in American history:

  • Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson, a Virginia delegate, was the principal author of the Declaration. His eloquent prose and deep commitment to individual rights and self-determination left an indelible mark on the document.

  • John Adams: John Adams, a Massachusetts delegate and later the second U.S. President, was a strong advocate for independence. He served on the committee responsible for reviewing and editing the draft.

  • Benjamin Franklin: Benjamin Franklin, renowned for his scientific and diplomatic achievements, also contributed to the editing process and lent his prestige to the cause.

  • Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston: These two delegates served on the committee with Jefferson and Adams, providing valuable input during the drafting and revising stages.

Together, these Founding Fathers crafted a document that not only declared independence but also articulated the philosophical foundations of American democracy.

July 4, 1776, holds immense significance in American history as the day the Continental Congress officially adopted the Declaration of Independence. This event marked the formal and unanimous decision of the American colonies to declare their independence from British rule. The Declaration not only declared independence but also established the principles upon which the new nation would be founded, including the idea that governments derive their power from the consent of the governed and the recognition of “unalienable rights” such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. July 4th is celebrated as Independence Day in the United States, a day of patriotic festivities, fireworks, and reflection on the nation’s core values.

The Declaration of Independence played a pivotal role in galvanizing American colonists and uniting them in the struggle for independence. Upon its adoption, the document was read aloud in public squares, inspiring a sense of purpose and resolve. It provided a moral and philosophical justification for the American Revolutionary War, framing the conflict as a fight for fundamental rights and self-determination. The words of the Declaration served as a unifying force, bolstering the spirit of the Continental Army and garnering support from colonists who may have been initially hesitant to join the revolutionary cause. In this way, the Declaration of Independence had a profound impact on the American Revolutionary War, rallying the colonies to wage a successful fight for their independence.

One of the most famous phrases in the Declaration of Independence is “all men are created equal.” This statement reflects the Enlightenment ideals of equality and individual rights. It asserts that all individuals, regardless of their background or social status, share a fundamental equality in their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. While it’s essential to recognize that the founders’ interpretation of equality had limitations, such as not initially extending to enslaved individuals or women, this phrase has become a cornerstone of American political philosophy. It has been cited in various civil rights movements and debates throughout American history, serving as a rallying cry for equality and justice.

The Declaration of Independence had a profound impact beyond the borders of the United States. Its principles of self-determination, natural rights, and the right to rebel against oppressive governments resonated with people seeking independence worldwide. It served as a source of inspiration for movements for freedom and independence in other countries, including Latin American nations in their struggles against colonial rule. The document’s ideals also influenced subsequent declarations of independence and democratic movements across the globe. The Declaration of Independence stands as a testament to the enduring power of ideas and the universal appeal of liberty and self-governance.

In July 1776, around 200 copies of the Declaration of Independence were printed by John Dunlap, a Philadelphia printer. These copies, known as the “Dunlap Broadsides,” were distributed to various entities, including the Continental Congress, state legislatures, and military commanders. Over time, some of these copies were lost or destroyed. However, a significant number survive today. One of the most famous original copies is the engrossed copy, handwritten on parchment, which is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

The Declaration of Independence laid the philosophical foundation for the United States Constitution, which was adopted in 1787. Many of the principles articulated in the Declaration, such as the idea that governments derive their power from the consent of the governed and the protection of individual rights, influenced the framing of the Constitution. The Constitution also addressed practical matters of governance, establishing the structure of the federal government and outlining the rights and responsibilities of citizens. Together, these two documents form the core of American political philosophy and provide the framework for the nation’s government and legal system.

The wording of the Declaration of Independence has been a subject of interpretation and debate since its adoption. One notable point of discussion is the phrase “all men are created equal.” While the founders’ intent was to declare equality in terms of natural rights, the document did not immediately extend these rights to all individuals, particularly enslaved people and women. Over time, various groups and individuals have drawn upon the Declaration’s principles to advocate for expanded rights and liberties, leading to debates about the document’s original intent versus its evolving interpretation.

Yes, there are notable revisions in the Declaration of Independence’s original text. The most famous change is in Jefferson’s initial draft, where he originally included a strong condemnation of the institution of slavery. However, this section was edited and revised by the Continental Congress to secure the support of slaveholding colonies. As a result, references to slavery were removed. Additionally, there have been discussions and debates about the accuracy of specific historical claims and grievances listed in the Declaration, with historians scrutinizing the accuracy of some of the document’s assertions about British actions. These revisions and historical debates highlight the complex nature of the document’s creation and the historical context in which it was written.

Are the Ideas of the Declaration of Independence still valid today?

How to write a document that would speak of the American spirit? This was the quest of Thomas Jefferson as he sat down to write the Declaration of Independence. Three hot weeks in Philadelphia later he believed he accomplished that goal. The Declaration is considered to be a statement of the spirit of the revolution and of the the American people as a whole. A new nation was born of a new people. We were no longer Englishmen, we were Americans. The Declaration is divided into three basic segments:
1. An introduction with a statement of our philosophy.
  • Jefferson used the writings of John Locke as a basis of the philosophy behind the revolution. First Jefferson announces that it is neccesary to write a document when “it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them to another.” He then declares that there are certain “truths.” “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” Accordingly he continues to paraphrase Locke by discussing the concept of the social contract and the ensuing right to rebel. “That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving there just powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever and Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it.” Thus Jefferson has laid a philosophical framework as the revolution as a “just.”
2. A list of grievances (Complaints)
  • In the second section Jefferson lists 27 grievances against the King to prove his supposition that the King has lost his right to rule by consent. Among these grievances he lists:
  • He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our People.
  • He has erected a Multitude of New Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • He has made Judges dependent on his will alone, for the Tenure of their offices and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
  • He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the Consent of our Legislatures.
  • For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World.
  • For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us.
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our consent.
  • For depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury.
There are more of course, but I’m sure you get the idea. 3. The third section is a final and formal “Declaration of Independence.” In it Jefferson declares: “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved;”
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: A HISTORYIntroduction Nations come into being in many ways. Military rebellion, civil strife, acts of heroism, acts of treachery, a thousand greater and lesser clashes between defenders of the old order and supporters of the new–all these occurrences and more have marked the emergences of new nations, large and small. The birth of our own nation included them all. That birth was unique, not only in the immensity of its later impact on the course of world history and the growth of democracy, but also because so many of the threads in our national history run back through time to come together in one place, in one time, and in one document: the Declaration of Independence. Moving Toward Independence The clearest call for independence up to the summer of 1776 came in Philadelphia on June 7. On that date in session in the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall), the Continental Congress heard Richard Henry Lee of Virginia read his resolution beginning: “Resolved: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.” The Lee Resolution was an expression of what was already beginning to happen throughout the colonies. When the Second Continental Congress, which was essentially the government of the United States from 1775 to 1788, first met in May 1775, King George III had not replied to the petition for redress of grievances that he had been sent by the First Continental Congress. The Congress gradually took on the responsibilities of a national government. In June 1775 the Congress established the Continental Army as well as a continental currency. By the end of July of that year, it created a post office for the “United Colonies.” In August 1775 a royal proclamation declared that the King’s American subjects were “engaged in open and avowed rebellion.” Later that year, Parliament passed the American Prohibitory Act, which made all American vessels and cargoes forfeit to the Crown. And in May 1776 the Congress learned that the King had negotiated treaties with German states to hire mercenaries to fight in America. The weight of these actions combined to convince many Americans that the mother country was treating the colonies as a foreign entity. One by one, the Continental Congress continued to cut the colonies’ ties to Britain. The Privateering Resolution, passed in March 1776, allowed the colonists “to fit out armed vessels to cruize [sic] on the enemies of these United Colonies.” On April 6, 1776, American ports were opened to commerce with other nations, an action that severed the economic ties fostered by the Navigation Acts. A “Resolution for the Formation of Local Governments” was passed on May 10, 1776. At the same time, more of the colonists themselves were becoming convinced of the inevitability of independence. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, published in January 1776, was sold by the thousands. By the middle of May 1776, eight colonies had decided that they would support independence. On May 15, 1776, the Virginia Convention passed a resolution that “the delegates appointed to represent this colony in General Congress be instructed to propose to that respectable body to declare the United Colonies free and independent states.” It was in keeping with these instructions that Richard Henry Lee, on June 7, 1776, presented his resolution. There were still some delegates, however, including those bound by earlier instructions, who wished to pursue the path of reconciliation with Britain. On June 11 consideration of the Lee Resolution was postponed by a vote of seven colonies to five, with New York abstaining. Congress then recessed for 3 weeks. The tone of the debate indicated that at the end of that time the Lee Resolution would be adopted. Before Congress recessed, therefore, a Committee of Five was appointed to draft a statement presenting to the world the colonies’ case for independence. The Committee of Five The committee consisted of two New England men, John Adams of Massachusetts and Roger Sherman of Connecticut; two men from the Middle Colonies, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New York; and one southerner, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. In 1823 Jefferson wrote that the other members of the committee “unanimously pressed on myself alone to undertake the draught [sic]. I consented; I drew it; but before I reported it to the committee I communicated it separately to Dr. Franklin and Mr. Adams requesting their corrections. . . . I then wrote a fair copy, reported it to the committee, and from them, unaltered to the Congress.” (If Jefferson did make a “fair copy,” incorporating the changes made by Franklin and Adams, it has not been preserved. It may have been the copy that was amended by the Congress and used for printing, but in any case, it has not survived. Jefferson’s rough draft, however, with changes made by Franklin and Adams, as well as Jefferson’s own notes of changes by the Congress, is housed at the Library of Congress.) Jefferson’s account reflects three stages in the life of the Declaration: the document originally written by Jefferson; the changes to that document made by Franklin and Adams, resulting in the version that was submitted by the Committee of Five to the Congress; and the version that was eventually adopted. On July 1, 1776, Congress reconvened. The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting. Immediately afterward, the Congress began to consider the Declaration. Adams and Franklin had made only a few changes before the committee submitted the document. The discussion in Congress resulted in some alterations and deletions, but the basic document remained Jefferson’s. The process of revision continued through all of July 3 and into the late afternoon of July 4. Then, at last, church bells rang out over Philadelphia; the Declaration had been officially adopted. The Declaration of Independence is made up of five distinct parts: the introduction; the preamble; the body, which can be divided into two sections; and a conclusion. The introduction states that this document will “declare” the “causes” that have made it necessary for the American colonies to leave the British Empire. Having stated in the introduction that independence is unavoidable, even necessary, the preamble sets out principles that were already recognized to be “self-evident” by most 18th- century Englishmen, closing with the statement that “a long train of abuses and usurpations . . . evinces a design to reduce [a people] under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.” The first section of the body of the Declaration gives evidence of the “long train of abuses and usurpations” heaped upon the colonists by King George III. The second section of the body states that the colonists had appealed in vain to their “British brethren” for a redress of their grievances. Having stated the conditions that made independence necessary and having shown that those conditions existed in British North America, the Declaration concludes that “these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved.”
 The Declaration of Independence
A Transcription IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor. The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated: [Column 1] Georgia: Button Gwinnett Lyman Hall George Walton [Column 2] North Carolina: William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn South Carolina: Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward, Jr. Thomas Lynch, Jr. Arthur Middleton [Column 3] Massachusetts: John Hancock Maryland: Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton Virginia: George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson, Jr. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton [Column 4] Pennsylvania: Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross Delaware: Caesar Rodney George Read Thomas McKean [Column 5] New York: William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris New Jersey: Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark [Column 6] New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Massachusetts: Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins William Ellery Connecticut: Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott New Hampshire: Matthew Thornton