FDR’s New Deal: Reshaping the American Economy

FDR’s New Deal: Reshaping the American Economy


In the shadow of the worst economic downturn in American history, a new leader emerged promising relief, recovery, and reform. Franklin D. Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, ascended to the presidency at a time when the United States grappled with the crippling effects of the Great Depression. Unemployment was rampant, banks were failing, and hope was in short supply. Against this bleak backdrop, FDR’s New Deal was a bold series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted between 1933 and 1939, which aimed to restore dignity and prosperity to Americans.

This essay will delve into the transformative period of FDR’s New Deal, which not only sought immediate economic stabilization but also laid the groundwork for significant social legislation and expanded the role of the federal government in a way that continues to influence the country’s political and economic life. The analysis will explore how the New Deal fundamentally reshaped the American economic landscape and the symbiotic relationship between the nation and its government.

Historical Context

To comprehend the significance of the New Deal, it is essential to consider the cataclysmic state of the United States before its implementation. The Great Depression, which began with the stock market crash of October 1929, had plunged the country into economic despair. By 1933, nearly 25% of the workforce was unemployed, and industrial production had fallen by half. Banks were a domino effect of failures, and deflation spiraled, ravaging the incomes of the American populace.

In the midst of this economic chaos, Franklin D. Roosevelt presented a stark contrast to the seeming inaction of the Hoover administration. FDR, a charismatic leader with a vision for change, secured the presidency with a landslide victory in 1932. His promise of a ‘New Deal’ for the American people was more than just a campaign slogan; it was a beacon of hope for a nation in dire straits. The New Deal, influenced by a diverse group of FDR’s advisors known as the “Brain Trust,” drew on progressive ideas that sought not just to recover the economy, but to reform the very structures that had allowed such a collapse.

Rooted in these ideals, the New Deal was not a singular plan, but a series of experiments and programs designed to achieve three main goals: to provide immediate relief to the suffering, to foster economic recovery, and to implement reforms that would prevent future depressions. With the weight of the economic crisis bearing down on the nation, FDR’s New Deal would soon unfold as one of the most ambitious and controversial undertakings in American history, fundamentally challenging the relationship between the government and the governed.

The First New Deal (1933-1934)

The First New Deal was a flurry of activity that began immediately after FDR took office in March 1933. During the legendary “First Hundred Days,” the Roosevelt administration pushed through Congress an unprecedented number of new bills that aimed to tackle the various aspects of the economic crisis.

At the heart of the First New Deal was the Emergency Banking Act, which aimed to stabilize the crumbling financial system. This legislation permitted the Treasury Department to inspect and reopen viable banks, while the Federal Reserve was empowered to issue additional currency backed by various assets. The public’s confidence in the banking system was restored through the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) under the Glass-Steagall Banking Act, insuring deposits and ending the epidemic of bank runs.

Agriculture, a sector that had been in crisis even before the Depression, was addressed through the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). The AAA sought to raise crop prices by reducing supply through government-purchased surpluses and paying farmers to cut production. This measure was controversial and led to critical debates regarding its morality and efficiency, as food was destroyed while people went hungry.

To combat unemployment, FDR established the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which created jobs for young men in environmental conservation projects, and the Public Works Administration (PWA), which focused on large-scale infrastructure projects. The CCC not only provided employment but also aimed to improve the nation’s natural resources, from planting trees to fighting soil erosion. The PWA, on the other hand, worked on major projects such as dams, bridges, and schools, leaving a lasting impact on the American landscape.

Another significant aspect of the First New Deal was the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), an ambitious project that tackled the problems of energy production and rural poverty in the Tennessee Valley, a region that was notably underdeveloped. The TVA built dams, controlled flooding, and generated electric power, but its most profound legacy was the demonstration that federal intervention could catalyze economic development in impoverished areas.

The First New Deal set a rapid pace for reform and established the groundwork for the federal government’s role in economic management. It was a blend of conservative and progressive ideas, combining direct government intervention with efforts to stabilize existing economic systems. While it did not end the Depression, the First New Deal laid the foundation for more extensive reforms and established a new precedent for federal responsibility in safeguarding the economy and the welfare of the American people.

The Second New Deal (1935-1936)

The Second New Deal marked a phase of more aggressive reforms, addressing the inadequacies of the First New Deal and expanding the federal government’s role in social welfare and economic governance. While the First New Deal was crucial, it was clear by 1935 that more comprehensive measures were needed to combat the persistent economic distress.

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) became the centerpiece of the Second New Deal. It was an expansion of the earlier relief programs and aimed at providing long-term government jobs for the unemployed. The WPA not only addressed the immediate need for employment but also focused on the development of infrastructure, arts, and community projects. Its work touched virtually every community in America and left an indelible mark on the nation’s physical and cultural landscape.

Perhaps the most profound legacy of the Second New Deal was the Social Security Act of 1935, which established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, and aid for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and the blind. This act laid the foundation for America’s social safety net, a concept that was revolutionary at the time and remains a central component of the nation’s socioeconomic policies.

The National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act, was another key reform that reshaped the American workplace. It guaranteed workers the right to unionize and bargain collectively, which led to a significant increase in union membership and power. This legislation not only empowered organized labor but also addressed the imbalance between the economic power of corporations and the individual worker.

Tax reforms were also a significant aspect of the Second New Deal, highlighted by the Revenue Act of 1935, which introduced progressive taxation that increased rates on higher income brackets. This “wealth tax” was intended to redistribute wealth and fund the expanding government programs, illustrating FDR’s commitment to reducing income inequality.

The Second New Deal was more ideological than its predecessor, grounded in the belief that the government should play a more active role in correcting economic imbalances and in protecting the economically vulnerable. This suite of policies and programs reflected a profound shift in American political thought about the role of government in society and set the stage for the modern welfare state. Despite criticism and political opposition, the Second New Deal established enduring institutions and policy precedents that shaped the course of the nation for generations to come.

Challenges and Opposition

Despite the popularity of many New Deal programs, President Roosevelt faced significant opposition from various quarters. Challenges to his policies came from political opponents, the Supreme Court, economic theorists, and segments of the public, who decried the New Deal as either too radical or not radical enough.

Political opposition was fierce and multifaceted. Republicans and conservative Democrats often opposed New Deal policies on the grounds that they expanded federal power too broadly and threatened individual liberties and states’ rights. The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal measures, such as the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and the original Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), citing overreach of federal authority, which led to FDR’s controversial court-packing plan in an attempt to secure more favorable rulings.

From the field of economics, figures like John Maynard Keynes critiqued New Deal policies for not going far enough in their spending to stimulate the economy out of the depression. In contrast, classical economists and fiscal conservatives argued that the policies created unsustainable deficits and interfered excessively with market dynamics.

Societal and cultural resistance also emerged. While the New Deal aimed to be inclusive, many African Americans, women, and minority groups were often left out of its benefits due to discriminatory practices and social norms of the era. Additionally, some critics from the left, including Huey Long with his “Share Our Wealth” program, felt the New Deal did not do enough to redistribute wealth and alleviate poverty.

Amidst this opposition, FDR managed to maintain a broad coalition of support, known as the New Deal coalition, which included urban workers, the Southern whites, African Americans, and the rural poor. This coalition significantly altered the political landscape, contributing to the Democratic Party’s dominance in Congress through the 1930s and beyond.

Despite the multitude of challenges and opposition, the New Deal survived, albeit with compromises and adjustments. The pushback led to more considered policies and often necessitated the use of executive orders and innovative political maneuvers. The opposition to the New Deal highlights the complexity of democratic governance and the balancing act between various interests and ideologies that is central to the American political system.

The New Deal’s Legacy

The New Deal has left a complex and enduring legacy that has shaped the American social and political landscape for generations. Its initiatives fundamentally altered the relationship between the state and its citizens, laying the groundwork for the modern welfare state and influencing the development of subsequent social programs. The shift towards a more active federal government in economic and social policy has remained a central theme in American politics.

The New Deal’s impact can be seen in the institutions and infrastructure it created, many of which are still in use today. Social Security, arguably the most far-reaching of its programs, continues to be a critical source of retirement income for millions of Americans. The labor standards set forth, including minimum wage laws, workplace safety regulations, and the right to collective bargaining, remain foundational to the modern employment landscape.

Furthermore, the New Deal changed the American political narrative, empowering voices that had previously been marginalized. It played a significant role in cementing the Democratic Party’s reputation as a party that supports expansive social welfare programs, and it fostered an enduring debate over the size and role of government—a debate that remains vibrant and contentious to this day.

Critically, the New Deal also set a precedent for federal intervention in times of crisis, a playbook used in subsequent economic downturns, including the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. The New Deal taught that government could act directly to stimulate the economy and protect the vulnerable, a lesson that continues to influence policy decisions.

However, the New Deal’s legacy is not without its critics, who argue that it expanded federal power too far, laid the groundwork for a bloated bureaucratic state, and set unsustainable precedents for government spending. These criticisms are a significant part of its legacy, too, as they have shaped the contours of American conservative thought and action.

The New Deal, therefore, is not just a set of historical policies but a living legacy, a series of principles and ideas that continue to inform American governance and resonate through the country’s collective consciousness.


In sum, the New Deal represented a transformative moment in American history, a bold experiment in social and economic policy that sought to address the most significant crisis of the 20th century. Its combination of relief, recovery, and reform measures marked a shift in the way Americans viewed the role of their government, making it an agent of direct action to solve societal problems.

While not without its flaws, and certainly not a cure-all for the Great Depression, the New Deal nevertheless laid the foundation for a more equitable and resilient nation. The policies and programs initiated by FDR’s administration helped to alleviate the worst effects of the Depression, reshaped the American economy, and mitigated social inequalities. The New Deal era also provided a blueprint for future generations on how to mobilize and respond to national emergencies.

Today, the New Deal remains a benchmark against which new policies are measured and is a touchstone in the discourse surrounding the capabilities and responsibilities of government. Its mixed legacy of innovation and controversy continues to offer valuable lessons for policymakers and citizens alike. As America continues to evolve and face new challenges, the spirit of the New Deal—with its emphasis on adaptability, experimentation, and a commitment to the public good—endures as a fundamental element of the nation’s identity.

Class Notes and Outline – What was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s plan to end the Great Depression?

As we have seen the Great Depression had a devastating impact on the American economy and the American people. President Hoover believed, basically, in waiting things out. As result of Hoovers inactivity America turned to a new, dynamic leader: Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Today we will discuss his basic strategy for improving the economy.


I. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

A. Early Years

1. Raised in upper class family in Hyde Park N.Y.

2. Attended Harvard and Colombia

3. Lawyer then active in NY politics

4. 1912 – Assistant Sec. Of Navy

5. 1918 Narrowly won Governorship of NY,

6. 1920 – VP Candidate with James A. Cox

7. 1921 – Contracted Polio, lost use of legs. This deeply effected Roosevelt. Now he truly knew what human suffering was all about. He could identify. He was also a fighter and a winner. He overcame his handicap and this later would inspire Americans during the depression.

8. 1930 Reelected Governor of New York State – His innovative
programs gained national attention and were eventually called the Little New Deal – NY Model

9. Ran for Pres. In 1932 – Used song: “Happy Day’s Are Here Again.Pledged to America; “I Pledge to you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people!

B. What did Roosevelt do when he got elected?

1. Inauguration Speech: Told America “We have nothing to fear but fear itself!” He wanted to inspire optimism and hope. He did not want America paralyzed by fear. He was a man of action.

2. Appointed the “Brain Trust” – These were a group of brilliant
social, economic and political thinkers who comprised Roosevelt’s cabinet. He surrounded himself with the best, not just political allies and supporters.

-Harry Hopkins – Social Worker and the architect of much of the New Deal.

-Henry Morgenthau

-Louis Lowe

-Cordell Hull

-Frances Perkins – Sec. of Labor and first female in the cabinet.

-Sam Rosenman

-Raymond Moley

-Rexford Tugwell

3. First Hundred Days – For the first hundred days of his administration Roosevelt and his Brain Trust where a whirlwind of activity. Legislation was introduced and passed at a furious pace as Congress mostly acted as a rubber stamp. Roosevelt called Congress into session and asked for executive power to wage war against poverty and pessimism. He said he wanted a power “as great as the power that would be given me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.” At first he ordered a bank holiday, which closed every bank in the nation and stopped people from withdrawing all of their money. This ended the panic. He then signed legislation called the Emergency Banking Act. This closed all of the insolvent lending institution and only reopened the solvent ones. While many lost money at least the panic was eased.

B. What was Roosevelt’s underlying philosophy?

1. Keynesian or “pump priming” economics. Based on the beliefs of economist John Maynard Keynes it held that money should be invested in the people, the working class. Then spending would increase with new money in circulation. As spending increased it was expected that businesses would expand to meet the new demand and hire new workers. This would spur on more spending and more growth. This plan was the opposite of the Republican plan ascribed to by Hoover and earlier leaders. They had believed in supply side or “trickle down” economics. In this philosophy money was to be invested at top, in business. Then businesses would expand, hire new workers and this in turn would spur on spending and further economic growth.

D. What did Roosevelt mean by relief, recovery and reform?

1. Relief – Immediate action taken to halt the economies deterioration.

2. Recovery – “Pump – Priming” Temporary programs to restart the flow of consumer demand.

3. Reform – Permanent programs to avoid another depression and insure citizens against economic disasters.



Immediate action taken to halt the economies deterioration.








“Pump – Priming” Temporary programs to restart the flow of consumer demand.








Permanent programs to avoid another depression and insure citizens against economic disasters.




Bank Holiday
Declared so that the panic would be stopped.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)




Taxed food processors and gave the money directly to farmers as a payment for not growing food. This decreased supply so price would go up.




Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)




Permanent Agency set up to monitor stock market activity and ensure that no fraud or insider trading was taking place.




Emergency Banking Act




Closed the insolvent banks and only reopened the solvent ones.




National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)




Created the NRA (National Recovery Administration) a consortium of businesses organized by the government and given the power to set rules and regulations for the economy. Members of the NRA displayed a blue eagle.




Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)




Permanent Agency designed to insure depositors money in savings banks. Originally insured up to $5,000 per depositor today it has increased to $100,000.




Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)




Gave immediate help to those that needed it in the form of cash payments.




Home Owners Loan Corp.




Gave loans to home owners so they could pay their mortgages. This prevented people from going homeless and prevented banks from going under.




Social Security Administration




Permanent agency designed to ensure that the older segment of society always would have enough money to survive. The key here is that they would then also be able to spend throughout their lives.




Civil Works Administration (CWA)




Provided temporary jobs repairing roads and bridges.




Works Progress Administration (WPA)




Provided long term government jobs building schools and other public works projects.




National Labor Relations Act and National Labor Relations Board (NLRA/NLRB)




Otherwise known as the Wagner Act it helped unions and thus helped workers. This acted created the NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) which enforced labor law and made sure that fair business practices where upheld.




Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)




Temporary jobs to unmarried single adults filling sand bags and helping out at disaster type situations. Participants lived in barracks type housing.




Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)




Agency created to build dams in the Tennessee river valley. These dams provided more stable irrigation and cheap hydroelectric power.




Soil Conservation Act




Laws mandating proper soil maintenance to make sure that another dust bowl was avoided.






FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT — provided minimum wage for workers.

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS — provided work for jobless males between 18 & 25 in reforestation, road construction, prevention of forest erosion. Ended in 1941.

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT — established principle of government price support for farmers and guaranteed farm purchasing power.

TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ACT — federal construction and ownership of power plants regional development of Tennessee Valley (7 State Area)

FEDERAL SECURITIES ACT — required full disclosure of information related to new stock issues.

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT SYSTEM ACT — created US employment service.

HOME OWNERS REFINANCING ACT — use of government bonds to guarantee mortgages.

BANKING ACT OF 1933 — created Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., guaranteeing the safety of bank deposits.

regulation of industry — ended in 1935.

PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION — appropriated funds to construct
roads and other federal projects.

SECURITY AND EXCHANGE ACT — federal regulation of the operation
of stock exchange.

NATIONAL HOUSING ACT — federal housing administration insured loans of private banks and trust companies for construction of homes.

COMMUNICATIONS ACT — federal housing administration insured loans of private banks and trust companies for construction of homes.

HOME OWNERS LOAN ACT — government financing of home mortgages.

NATIONAL HOUSING ACT — construction of low cost public housing and slum clearance.

SOIL CONSERVATION ACT — established federal soil conservation services.

RESETTLEMENT ADMINISTRATION — built new model communities for low
income city workers

program of bringing electricity to rural areas.

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION — federal work relief and employment for young people.

NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT — encouraged collective bargaining
and formation of unions to be supervised by the National Labor
Relations Board.

SOCIAL SECURITY ACT — created Social Security System — old age
and survivors insurance; aid to dependent children etc.